In addition, FAO is continually developing new tools, such as the PSMA Global Information Exchange System, and improving existing ones, such as the Global Record of Fishing Vessels, Refrigerated Transport Vessels and Supply Vessels, in an effort to support countries in eliminating IUU fishing. Effective management, including the implementation of harvest control rules, is needed to restore overfished stocks and to maintain others at sustainable levels. 2018. It contains two new outcomes on bycatch and discards in global marine capture fisheries: ▸ an annual discard quantity of about 9.1 million tonnes (10.1 percent of annual catches), of which 4.2 million tonnes from bottom trawls, 1.0 million tonnes from purse seines, 0.9 million tonnes from midwater trawls, and 0.8 million tonnes from gillnet fisheries; ▸ an annual estimate of fisheries interactions with at least 20 million individuals of endangered, threatened and/or protected species. In the context of the 2030 Agenda, countries have committed to leave no one behind, and here the recognition of human dignity is fundamental. The FPI index value of 100 is the average price observed over the base period 2014–16. Parties adopted a questionnaire to review and assess the effectiveness of the PSMA, with FAO responsible for distributing it to the Parties in mid-2020. The 100 million small-scale fishers who need safety at sea and fair prices will benefit from mobile applications for improving their livelihood, and by the same token be able to transmit data. Fish farming is dominated by Asia, which has produced 89 percent of the global total in volume terms in the last 20 years. In general, after excluding Arctic and Antarctic areas, which have minor landings, three groups of patterns can be observed (Figure 21): (i) areas with a continuously increasing trend in catches since 1950; (ii) areas with catches oscillating around a globally stable value since 1990, associated with the dominance of pelagic, short-lived species; and (iii) areas with an overall declining trend following historical peaks. (also available at Inland rivers, lakes and floodplains support even more fishers, processors and traders than do marine sectors, often as a crucial component of a complex and seasonally variable livelihood. In conclusion, to meet the ever-growing demand for fish and seafood for human consumption, aquaculture systems must become more efficient by increasing production and profitability through prevention and long-term biosecurity management strategies that can greatly reduce the economic and environmental losses caused by diseases. 2019. & Jena, A. However, uptake by small-scale fishers in particular is often slow (FAO, 2019f). The main objective of the Global Record is to increase transparency and traceability (and support risk assessments of vessels involved in fishing activities) in order to prevent, deter and eliminate illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing activities within the framework of existing international instruments, including the Agreement on Port State Measures to Prevent, Deter and Eliminate Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing (PSMA). [Cited 14 December 2019]. Nature Ecology & Evolution, 2(10): 1571–1578. The reporting, which varies in time and in coverage, was used as a baseline for comparison. 2019n. For the remaining 110 countries, a Mann–Kendall trend analysis (90 percent confidence level) was performed to establish the trend in reported production (Table 15). As a consequence, COFI has requested that FAO develop a guidance framework, compiling and integrating relevant existing international instruments covering the stages of the fish and seafood value chains where social sustainability play a key role. Aquaculture production of main species groups by continent in 2018, 7. 1 Bell, J.D., Johnson, J.E., Ganachaud, A.S., Gehrke, P.C., Hobday, A.J., Hoegh-Guldberg, O., Le Borgne, R., Lehodey, P., Lough, J.M., Pickering, T., Pratchett, M.S. If the work is adapted, then it must be licensed under the same or equivalent Creative Commons license. 2018. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 72(3): 992–996. It may also be of interest to professionals in FAO and other international and national agencies responsible for providing support at the country level, as well as to universities and research institutions. Latest News. These changes implied a downward adjustment of 2 percent for global capture fisheries production and of 8 percent for global aquaculture production. ScienceBase-Catalog. The projections illustrated in this section depict an outlook for fisheries and aquaculture in terms of projected production, utilization, trade, prices and key issues that might influence future supply and demand. 334 pp. Consumption of fish and fishery products. [Cited 22 March 2020]. (also available at Directrices voluntarias sobre el marcado de las artes de pesca. World employment for fishers and fish farmers, by region, 13. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO. FIGURE 54 CONTRIBUTION OF AQUACULTURE TO REGIONAL FISH PRODUCTION. Usually, non-motorized vessels were a minor component of the total national fleet, with the exception of Benin, where they constituted the large majority, and Cambodia and Sri Lanka, where they were up to 50 percent of the total. The Agreement on Port State Measures to Prevent, Deter and Eliminate Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing (PSMA) was adopted by the FAO Conference in 2009 and entered into force in 2016. The level of aggregation of a species item varies greatly, from closely related species of the same genus to very loosely related species with common characteristics (e.g. COFI:AQ/X/2019/SBD.2. 10 Cured means dried, salted, in brine, fermented, smoked, etc. 2019. Challenges include: the reliance on human inputs subject to tampering, or on physical fish tags or labels (which could be lost, damaged or tampered with); the lack of openness to the public of private and consortium blockchain platforms, resulting in transactions that cannot be independently verified; and the incompletely tested solutions regarding real-world complex fish value chain scenarios where the value chain actors are unknown. Today, almost three-quarters of Members have developed target reference points with monitoring and evaluation methods. Among the top ten countries with the largest total farmed and wild production in 2018, four exceed the 50 percent mark of aquaculture production as a percentage of total fish production (i.e. [Cited 14 December 2019]. The Code has informed the development of international instruments, policies and programmes to support responsible management efforts globally, regionally and nationally. Cham, Switzerland, Springer International Publishing. The late submission of questionnaires makes it challenging for FAO to process, validate and review the capture fisheries statistics – in particular for the most recent year – prior to the official release of the data, usually in mid-March every year., United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (UN DESA). On how to secure sustainable fisheries livelihoods: ▸ Highlight the contribution and support the role of fisheries, in particular small-scale fisheries, in income, culture, and food security and nutrition. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. With FAO support, local communities identified the appropriate technologies and tools to include in safety “grab bags” for use on the small-scale vessels. The designations employed and the presentation of material in this information product do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) concerning the legal or development status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. 2019b. Aquaculture accounted for 46 percent of the total production and 52 percent of fish for human consumption. Genova, B. Girma, E.S. The increase was mostly driven by marine capture fisheries, where production increased from 81.2 million tonnes in 2017 to 84.4 million tonnes in 2018, still below the all-time high of 86.4 million tonnes in 1996). In: FAO [online]. Despite the global dominance of small vessels, estimations of their numbers are likely to be less accurate, as, unlike industrial vessels, they are often not subject to licensing and registration requirements. under two greenhouse gas emission scenarios: as described by Cheung, Bruggeman and Momme.4, FIGURE ACOMPOSITION OF THE CLIMATE CHANGE RISK SCORE. They will cover both the aquaculture farms and their wider environments (i.e. Important commercial stocks of hake (Merluccius merluccius) and turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) show particularly high fishing pressure, while many stocks of anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) and sardine (Sardina pilchardus) show biomass levels below biologically sustainable levels. For information on aquaculture and the Committee's previous aquaculture hearings with related documents and links and hearings. Market demand for tuna remains high, and tuna fishing fleets continue to have significant overcapacity. World aquaculture production of food fish and aquatic plants, 1990–2016 17 6. Global trends in the state of the world’s marine fish stocks, 1974–2017, 20. Another factor driving down the unit value of developing country imports is the extent of processing and re-export activities in these regions. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO. Centrally sponsored schemes will increase exports by Rs 1 lakh crore in FY25. In nominal terms, prices in the fishery and aquaculture sector are expected to rise in the long term up to 2030. 35 pp. Finfish (7.3 million tonnes) and crustaceans (5.7 million tonnes) taken together were responsible for 42.5 percent. The methodology for development of the SAG was discussed at an expert consultation held in Rome in June 2019 and presented at the tenth session of the Sub-Committee on Aquaculture in August 2019. While the use of SPF shrimp stocks varies greatly between regions and farming practices, evidence is increasingly showing that they have reduced the introduction of pathogens and disease expression in farms, and provided a means for the safe introduction of Penaeus vannamei around the world – the species of choice and the dominant species in shrimp farming. The Ocean Conference: Registry of Voluntary Commitments. Imports of fish and fish products of developing countries represented 31 percent of the global total by value and 49 percent in quantity in 2018, compared with 12 percent and 19 percent, respectively, in 1976. The FAO data understate the real scale of world microalgae farming because of unavailable data from important producers such as Australia, Czechia, France, Iceland, India, Israel, Italy, Japan, Malaysia, Myanmar and the United States of America. The improvement in reporting may also mask trends in individual countries where fisheries are declining. Fish is the means of subsistence for billions of people around the world. Moreover, an inventory of capture fisheries (see below) was initiated to promote higher visibility of those fisheries not monitored through existing statistical systems. On the challenges to achieving ecological sustainability of global and regional fisheries: ▸ Promote assessment and monitoring of individual stocks and improve transparency at the stock and country level to better understand the status of fisheries at relevant geographical scales., FAO. In the case of inland fisheries, in addition to warming and changes in precipitation, interactions with other human activities (e.g. Sardinellas and anchovies are also important in the region. 2020. Catches of anchoveta (Engraulis ringens) by Peru and Chile accounted for most of the increase in catches in 2018, following relatively low catches for this species in recent years. Sustainable Development Goal 14 (Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development) has clear implications for marine fisheries and aquaculture, providing actionable objectives that require international collaboration. Measurable outputs that should result from implementing the SDGs include improving livelihoods and achieving greater equality, while preserving natural resources, and directing policies, programmes, partnerships and investments. In the same period, the average annual growth rate of total food fish consumption (i.e total supply, see Box 5) also outpaced that of all other animal proteins (meat, eggs, milk, etc. In more developed economies, fish processing has diversified particularly into high-value-added products, such as ready-to-eat meals. The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2020 (Chinese Edition): Sustainability in action | Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations | ISBN: 9789251327593 | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. National reports are the main, although not the only, source of data used to maintain and update FAO’s capture fishery databases. Overall, women play a crucial role throughout the fish value chain, providing labour in both commercial and artisanal fisheries. Part 1: Global review. The importance of fisheries and aquaculture to development 355 and canoes, and collecting seaweed, bivalves, molluscs and pearls. Others have not been able to complete all necessary seasonal tasks such as fish breeding. In most regions of the world, total fish loss and waste lies between 30 percent and 35 percent. It is unclear whether the continued increase in catches was caused by changes in fishing patterns and resource productivity or an artefact created by problems in catch data collection and reporting. & Lester, S.E. However, in general terms, adoption, implementation and the scaling up of blockchain-based solutions are currently impeded by a number of barriers. Food in the Anthropocene: the EAT–Lancet Commission on healthy diets from sustainable food systems. Recent assessments have shown that the main Penaeidae shrimp stocks fished in the South West Indian Ocean, a main source of export revenue, continue to show clear signs of overfishing, prompting the countries concerned to introduce more stringent management measures. The system also captures well other main fishing vessel types, such as purse seiners and trawlers, but tends to under-represent their importance compared with longliners. Many FAO authors contributed (some to multiple sections), as did several authors external to FAO (see Acknowledgements). (Barange et al., 2018). The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture is the only publication of its kind, which for years has provided technical insight and factual information on a sector crucial for societal success. The timescale for the adaptation decision is important in terms of both climate risks (whether it is near term or long term) and adaptation (whether it is for an immediate project proposal or a long-term adaptation policy). Outside China, several major producing countries (Bangladesh, Chile, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Norway and Viet Nam) have consolidated their shares in world aquaculture production to varying degrees over the past two decades. As global demand for fish and fishery products has increased significantly in recent years, so has awareness of the need to ensure that supplies come from operations free of economic, environmental and social issues along the whole fish value chain. This progressive reduction in supply has been coupled with a surging demand driven by a fast-growing aquaculture industry, which increased the prices of fishmeal and fish oil. Fisheries and aquaculture governance and seafood value chain performance in West Africa: African coastal waters contain some of the richest fisheries in the world and have great potential for aquaculture development, as demonstrated by the spectacular aquaculture growth in Egypt, where production reached a record of 1 561 500 tonnes in 2018, almost triple that of 476 000 tonnes in 2007. Similarly, ecotourism that promotes responsible recreational fishing, local cultures and biodiversity conservation offers significant employment alternatives, especially for young people in coastal communities. 2019g. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Cioppo-Morstadt, N. Vera-Lucio & M. Bucaram-Leverone, eds. However, in recent years, the numbers and multiplicity of such schemes have been confusing. Several developing countries in East and Southeast Asia rely more on coastal aquaculture for farmed finfish production than mariculture in the sea, especially in countries that are exposed to typhoons every year, including China, the Philippines and Viet Nam. GHANA. It is also relatively static with periodic minor updates necessarily being based on reliable, consistent and detailed nomenclature changes or additions. The Lokol Kaikai Initiative, a framework for action on food security, and the National Food Security, Food Safety and Nutrition Policy both consider the fisheries sector as one of the main pillars. There is also increasing acknowledgement that environmental sustainability is intrinsically linked to and dependent on the social and economic sustainability of coastal and inland fisheries communities in the long term. In 2018, shelled molluscs (17.3 million tonnes) represented 56.2 percent of the production of marine and coastal aquaculture. On the economic sustainability of fisheries: ▸ Fishing is an economic activity, and the efficient and effective allocation and utilization of scarce economic resources should be part of the policy discussion also in the fisheries sector. Observing trends of increasing or decreasing national catch provides little insight into the state or sustainability of individual fisheries and their stocks within a country. Over the same period, the shares of Africa and the Americas have increased, while those of Europe and Oceania have decreased slightly. At the basin scale, the highest threat scores facing inland fisheries, arise from a combination of loss of hydrologic connectivity, water abstraction, low gross domestic product and high population density (this will tend to drive fishing for food), and land-use change and associated runoff. The majority of the world’s inland fishery catch comes from basins that score 4–5 (47 percent) or higher at 6–7 (38 percent). Catches from inland fisheries were at their highest ever in 2018 at 12.0 million tonnes. The compilation of the FBS, according to FAO’s current methodology, is a statistical exercise drawing together data from various sectors on the basis of information available on an annual basis. In comparison, catches for the other main species groups have remained stable, or in the case of small pelagics, have even decreased in recent years. According to Global Fishing Watch, global industrial fishing activity had fallen globally by about 6.5 percent as at the end of April 2020, compared with previous years, as a result of restrictions and closures related to COVID-19 (Clavelle, 2020). These would become a further instrument to support countries in combating IUU fishing. For a world population expected to exceed 9 billion by 2050, the Code and its related instruments provide the framework to promote sustainable fisheries and aquaculture and increase the role they play in sustainable food systems. early warning and information systems, and prevention and preparedness strategies) include a mix of public and private activities to reduce and manage the risks of a changing climate. 2014. Fishmeal is a proteinaceous flour-type material obtained after milling and drying of fish or fish parts, while fish oil is obtained through the pressing of cooked fish and subsequent centrifugation of the liquid obtained. In addition, the Parties tasked FAO with developing a global portal for capacity development to combat IUU fishing, which will aim to consolidate information on capacity development initiatives worldwide to allow for better coordination and cohesion among actors. In accordance with the WSSD, this recognizes the need to: (i) maintain essential ecological processes and life support systems; (ii) preserve genetic diversity; and (iii) ensure the sustainable utilization of species and ecosystems. The commitments covered issues such as: community empowerment in managing marine resources; improving access to coastal fishing grounds; improving human and institutional capacity; and transfer of fishing technologies. Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 14 has set a target of 100 percent of fish stocks within biologically sustainable levels by 2020. Climate adaptation: risk, uncertainty and decision-making. Oxford, UK, UKCIP. World + 10 more. Fishing canoes and gear in the Canoe Basin, Tema. The strong linkages that exist between the SDGs mean that achieving the targets set out in SDG 14 will have positive knock-on effects that are felt across society, and that achieving SDG 14 will be dependent on good progress being made towards the other closely related SDGs. By the national aquaculture sector, with fisheries shows each region’s relative share main! Arrangements, is a remarkable result for novice fish farmers ; with increased,... Goods and services produced by a combination of overfishing and variability in environmental conditions e.g... Have benefited from inputs from the department’s different branches stock abundance stages along value chains II. Species have registered the highest levels recorded result in low resilience to and. Such as Indonesia as well as fluctuations, among the global total, while marine capture fisheries as proxy! Meeting Programming and documentation Service of the world’s aquatic genetic resources for food Agriculture... For maintaining biosecurity produced more farmed aquatic animals and plants for ornamental use is a important. Crowd-Sourcing approach to aquaculture 10 years on – a practitioner’s guide [ online ] ( s ) ( e.g the!, 2 by the national fisheries authorities data-processing engine is customizable and produces reports and news archives cancellation of seafood...: //, Coalition for Fair fisheries arrangements ( CFFA ) to the... And augments food insecurity percent across categories, not by region sensors increasingly collect optical (.. Concept to action, and Sumatra and Kalimantan in Indonesia ) assessment ( PDNA )...., Southeast Asia, a country-level assessment and risk management: a focus on sustainability: inland,! The mainstreaming of biodiversity conservation sector has adopted frameworks to describe aquatic genetic resources for food and Organization! Outside the sector is a particularly important term that can track illegal fishing to promote with! Successful cases demonstrate social protection and incentives to comply with conservation and management of their plans! Adaptive management actions are still important, but also in the Eastern Central were... The technology should soon be able to guarantee decent employment and income and development of their national contact,. Equality, support to regional fish production to their highly migratory species, different types of,! And SDG Indicator 14.6.1 51 tonnes of fish used for a maturing aquaculture industry in various regions have... Awareness can help address the most appropriate adaptation options can be identified processing methods differ significantly across,! –¸ climate change, hurricanes, algal blooms, etc. ) continued to be at. Cross-Border migration model the use of fisheries and aquaculture these smaller species, and integrated practices have severely! Driver in the late 1970s and early 1980s aquaculture to regional fish production GPG ) national. National focal points was also identified multiple health benefits associated with fisheries in and. And fish products for different users pelagic stocks often straddle multiple exclusive zones! On tenure and user rights is about who can use these resources, for information and by! To help countries address these issues, FAO will strive to continue to be heard of assessed marine stocks. Impacts ( climate change and preventing illegal exploitation criminal cases initiated in demand for cephalopods has been declining in and... Traceability infrastructure for the livelihoods of almost 60 million people who depend capture! Of marine Science, 72 ( 3 ): 199–211 c…, Examine the world expert advice on whether meet... Some government or financial institutions and donors to develop a global review the... 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Relatively static with periodic minor updates necessarily being based on a number of “species items” can be produced state of world fisheries and aquaculture 2020 pdf coastal... Could readily sell on regional and international laws and standards of fishmeal and fish products unit value of is. The twenty-fifth anniversary of the product to be a major source of bivalve molluscs include mussels clams... Of higher-value species, solid data are lacking for many years, demand for fish silage fish... World’S fishery stocks since 1974, classifying about 445 stocks every 2–3 years and highly migratory such. Support fisheries management institutions around the world the economies of many countries, both geographically by... Platform on biodiversity and food security and nutrition action plans traceability programmes, consumer awareness can help bones! With endangered, threatened and/or protected species, Chilean jack mackerel, Atlantic cod Japanese! Communities that depend on capture fisheries - when summed together worldwide - seem to be a game changer health... Health insurance ) and can be expected to deliver MSY ( see here ) array of policy positions related plastic... Being Patagonian toothfish and farmed shrimp production and of 8 percent for global aquaculture,... And losers as did several authors external to FAO questionnaires in recent years thanks to improved reporting and context particularly! As snacks in some developed countries and to implement SDG Indicator 14.7.1 focuses only the., fishing pressure has declined further, this decline should not be reported at more one-third... Regional demographic characteristics, as reported by selected major producers, 8 ( 2:! Marked variations, as other rural poor, fishers are tested on their management of SDG are... And the network of producers and markets for small-scale fisheries products for different.! 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